2. Classical Arithide


“Numathos lysseae”

Ari absolessa, sonomne kasi emerē
hēne figētame ena dēnai libittai rivenē.
Par pindēn velessānēn, takserai
ita ōiou faiōm, eraithider ta fienai.

Dagerena falaia talia foue herrai,
sina semīō fāvrine dumum keneiō obtonai.

Isō zukē diā inae oldur dīkthoi
dīmai kurai, tam hekthē olīmī dege iris
nassoi vobuloi.


English Translation

“Descent into insanity”

I have wasted my life, always trying to
fulfill my quirky predilections, like in a long sleepwalk.
About my goals which I have failed to achieve, I surmise
(logically, I hope) that it’s all a trick of the mind.

I attempt to discover my place, where I fit in,
but the maps are false and the road signs wrong.

So let me create, that I may live for eternity,
my own rules, and let nightmares guide me into
the deepest darkness.


Grammar and Vocabulary

GLOSSES (n.b. “n.” refers to nominal class; “v.” to verbal class)

ab-, pref. verb intensiviser

aria, n. life

dagerai, v. to house; to contain; to fit in, to feel comfortable in a place

diā, pron. 1psg vocative case, used with the imperative to convey “let me …”

dīkai, v. to live, alive

dīma, n. rule

duma, n. road

-e, suff. essive case

-e, suff., verb gerund, which can be used in string a series of verbs in chronological or causative order

-ē, suff. adverb-forming suffix

emerēs, n. everyday [conjugation I]

ena, postp. like, as though

eraithos, n. logic

fae, n. irr. mind [conjugation I, stem fai-]

falaios, n. supposed to, meant for, expected [declines for all declensions]

fāvrinai, v. fake, forged

fienai, v. to hope

figētamos, n. lit. “dream-wandering”

fouēn, v. to discover

hekthēn, v. to guide

hēnos, n. long

herrai, v. to try to ~ (follows verb gerund)

inae, prep. so that, for the purposes of (takes genitive)

iras, n. the inside of

isō, interj. so, thus, therefore

ita, prep. marker of reported speech/thought etc. [see also “meta”]

-itt-, suff. diminutive or humble, with connotations of undesirability or awkwardness (in the social sense)

kasi, adv. always, constantly, continually

kena, n. sign

kus, kur-, n. own, proper, personal, private [declines for all declensions]

meta, postp. marker of reported speech/thought etc. [see also “ita”; sometimes shortened to “ta”]

-(i)mnai, suff. habitual/nomic aspect

-n-, suff. adjective-forming suffix

nassos, n. deepest, innermost

obtonai, v. wrong

ōios, n. all, entirety

oldur, adv. forever

olīmir, n. nightmare

par, prep. about (takes abl.)

pindos, n. goal, aim

rivēn, v. to follow, to accord with

-sa, suff. perfect aspect

semia, n. map [conjugation V, minor irregularities in declension pattern]

sina, conj. but

solerēn, v. to let flow; to waste, to abandon

sononai, v. to live daily life [stem: sono-]

tam, conj. and (connects clauses)

takserai, v. to surmise, to conclude

talias, n. place/seat/position in society

velerēn, v. to fail at

vobulos, n. darkness

zukēn, v. to create




The text is written in a traditional Arithide hexameter—6 stressed syllables per line.

Arithide is a highly inflectional language. Typical word order is SOV, but the inflections allow considerable free variation in word order. There are 2 word classes: “nominal”, which decline, and “verbal”, which conjugate.

Arithide words sometimes undergo phonological changes as morphological boundaries, so keep an open mind when matching words to glosses and the reference grammar below—you’re welcome for the extra fun 🙂


Nominal class

The 11 cases of Classical Arithide are:

  • Nominative, which marks the subject of a verb
  • Topical, which marks the topic of a sentence
  • Accusative, which marks the object of a verb
  • Genitive, which marks possession by
  • Dative, which marks motion towards, and by extension benefaction to etc.
  • Locative, which marks location (with places) or indicates shift of grammatical focus (with objects and people)
  • Ablative, which marks motion away or existence apart, and by extension is used with prepositions such as parō“about, regarding” or etel “by (agentive)”
  • Instrumental, which marks instruments, and by extension accompaniment, using the preposition syn“with”
  • Vocative, which marks direct address
  • Connective, which is an open-ended stem form to which certain affixes or other nouns are appended, e.g. salumos“heaven” + innos “top” > saluminnum “in heaven” (lit. “on heaven”; innos is in the locative) and allas“city” + dolō “around” (from dolos “surroundings”) > alladolō “around the city”
  • Essive, which marks existence as, or substitutes for the copula


Here is a chart of the declensions:

Встроенное изображение 1


And for pronouns:

Встроенное изображение 2



Verbal class

Each class is conjugated for five voices, three basic aspects, four derivative aspects, seven moods but no tenses (except the future):

  • Voices:active, middle, passive, causative, potentive
  • Aspects:imperfective, perfective, perfect; habitual/nomic, inceptive, frequentative, protractive
  • Moods:indicative, subjunctive, volitive, optative/desiderative, jussive, imperative, negative
    • The interrogative mood is marked by a following particle “da”.
  • Tenses:Only the future tense is explicitly marked, independently of aspect.


Note that each verb conjugation has its corresponding verbal adjective, e.g. serēn “to write” vs. serenos “…that writes”. Each of these adjectives can decline to agree with any noun class, even though in the PDF attached they are only listed in the declension I nominative case. E.g. sessānera mābera “the mother who has written (a letter etc.)”

Classical Verb Conjugation of Classical Arithide (PDF of sample conjugations).



Adjectives in Arithide straddle both the nominal class and the verbal class—predicative adjectives follow the verbal class, while substantive adjectives fall into the nominal class. There are regular translation rules between the two, but that goes beyond the purpose of this relay. For declension/conjugation, refer to the same charts as above.

Do not rely on FrathWiki … those pages are old and need updating.