12. TIAL


meo papo bono

meo papo gedica me,

zo me kera te monta unicorno a montano par te inspekta antelopo zo.

vanje me fiana unicorno i kite.

in me viaje, me inkontra uno tribo ma mutco unicorno fo

i to monstra me yo melo dulco hu to gediscopre fo.

to dica me yo gatto vey grando ana montano,

i tima le pota injurya me.

me tima me no va-arripa antelopo ana horo.

me monte nokte intere i, infra luno mo luco,

vida loko epe melo dulco zukresce fo.

an nas arripa antelopo, so vale i geparye.

English Translation

My Competent Father

My father said to me,

“I want you to ride the unicorn to the mountain

in order to inpect the antelopes.”

Then I got on the unicorn and left.

While I traveled, I met a tribe possessing many unicorns

and they showed me some sweet fruits they’d found.

They told me that a very large cat was on the mountain,

and were afraid that it could injure me.

I was afraid I was not going to reach the antelopes on time.

I rode the whole night and, under the moon’s light,

saw the place where the sweet fruits were growing.

When we reached the antelopes, they were well and had given birth.

Grammar and Vocabulary


Adjectival words and some adverbial words are treated as verbs in TIAL.


A verb or noun takes different endings depending on how it’s used:

-a bivalent verb, an object phrase follows
-e univalent verb, no object phrase follows
-o noun or noun modifier (univalent)

Prefixes Used

fi- inchoative, used on stative verbs
ge- retrospective aspect, indefinite relative past
va- prospective aspect, indefinite relative future
zu- progressive aspect


The word order is (Subject) Verb (IndirectObject) (DirectObject).

The subject may be omitted after a coordinating conjunction if it’s the same as that of the preceding clause.

A complement clause may take the place of a direct object.

The subject of the complement clause is omitted when it’s the same as that of the auxiliary verb.

There’s no definite article; a phrase beginning with a noun is definite.


N noun
NR noun, relational
Q quantifier or number
VD verb, dynamic
VD1 verb, dynamic, always univalent
VS verb, static
VS1 verb, static, always univalent
VS2 verb, static, always bivalent
adv adverb
conj conjunction
det determiner
pron pronoun
a VS2 at, to (defective)
an conj when
an~a VS on
antelop~o N antelope
arrip~a VD arrive at, reach
bon~e VS1 good, competent
dic~a VD tell, say
discopr~a VD find
dulc~e VS1 sweet
epe pron where (relative)
fo conj ends relative clause
gatt~o N cat
grand~e VS1 large
hor~o N hour, time
hu conj begins relative clause
i conj and
in conj while
infr~a VS below
injury~a VD harm
inkontr~a VD meet
inspekt~a VD inspect
inter~e VS1 whole
ker~a VS want
kit~a VD leave
kresc~e VD1 grow
le det distal demonstrative, 3rd person pronoun
lok~o N place
luc~o N light
lun~o N moon
ma VS2 have (defective)
me pron I, me
mel~o N fruit
meo det my
mo part genitive (possessor mo possessum)
monstr~a VD show
mont~a VD mount
montan~o N mountain
mutc~e Q much, many
nas pron we, us (1st person exclusive plural)
no adv not, no
nokt~e US1 night
pap~o NR father
par conj so that (purpose)
pary~a VD give birth to
pot~a VS able to
so det medial demonstrative, 3rd person pronoun
te pron you (2nd person singular)
tim~a VS fear
to det proximal demonstrative, 3rd person pronoun
trib~o N tribe
unicorn~o N unicorn
un~o Q one
val~e VS1 well
vanje adv at that time (past)
vey adv very
viaj~a VD travel
vid~a VS see
yo det indefinite article
zo part begins and ends direct quotation